Optimal needle placement for extensor hallucis longus muscle: A cadaveric study

In Yae Cheong, Do Kyun Kim, Ye Jeong Oh, Byung Kyu Park, Ki Hoon Kim, Dong Hwee Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Objective To determine the midpoint (MD) of extensor hallucis longus muscle (EHL) and compare the accuracy of different needle electromyography (EMG) insertion techniques through cadaver dissection. Methods Thirty-eight limbs of 19 cadavers were dissected. The MD of EHL was marked at the middle of the musculotendinous junction and proximal origin of EHL. Three different needle insertion points of EHL were marked following three different textbooks: M1, 3 fingerbreadths above bimalleolar line (BML); M2, junction between the middle and lower third of tibia; M3, 15 cm proximal to the lower border of both malleoli. The distance from BML to MD (BML_MD), and the difference between 3 different points (M1-3) and MD were measured (designated D1, D2, and D3, respectively). The lower leg length (LL) was measured from BML to top of medial condyle of tibia. Results The median value of LL was 34.5 cm and BML_MD was 12.0 cm. The percentage of BML_MD to LL was 35.1%. D1, D2, and D3 were 7.0, 0.9, and 3.0 cm, respectively. D2 was the shortest, meaning needle placement following technique by Lee and DeLisa was closest to the actual midpoint of EHL. Conclusion The MD of EHL is approximately 12 cm above BML, and about distal 35% of lower leg length. Technique that recommends placing the needle at distal two-thirds of the lower leg (M2) is the most accurate method since the point was closest to muscle belly of EHL.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)457-462
Number of pages6
JournalAnnals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 by Korean Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine.


  • Cadaver
  • Electromyography
  • Extensor hallucis longus muscle
  • Needles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation


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