Optimization of reinforced concrete retaining walls via hybrid firefly algorithm with upper bound strategy

Razi Sheikholeslami, Behnam Gholipour Khalili, Ali Sadollah, Joong Hoon Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


This paper represents a novel hybrid optimization method that uses an improved firefly algorithm with a harmony search algorithm (IFA-HS), for optimizing the cost of reinforced concrete retaining walls. The IFA-HS is utilized to find an economical design adhering to ACI 318-05 provisions. Two design examples regarding retaining walls are optimized using the proposed hybrid method, and the optimization results confirm the validity and efficiency of the developed algorithm. The IFA-HS method offers improvements on the recently developed firefly algorithm. These improvements include utilizing the memory that contains information extracted online during a search, employing pitch adjusting operation of HS during firefly updates, and modifying the movement phase of the FA. Moreover, to decrease the computational effort of the IFA-HS, the upper bound strategy, which is a recently developed strategy for reducing the total number of structural analyses, is incorporated during the optimization process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2428-2438
Number of pages11
JournalKSCE Journal of Civil Engineering
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Sept 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016, Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


  • concrete retaining wall
  • firefly algorithm
  • harmony search
  • hybrid optimization
  • metaheuristics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering


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