Optimization of supersonic nozzle flow for titanium dioxide thin-film coating by aerosol deposition

M. W. Lee, J. J. Park, D. Y. Kim, S. S. Yoon, H. Y. Kim, D. H. Kim, S. C. James, S. Chandra, Thomas Coyle, J. H. Ryu, W. H. Yoon, D. S. Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

67 Citations (Scopus)


Aerosol deposition (AD) is an efficient technique for customized coating of various substrates. The small particles of AD yield a dense coating layer with small voids. AD is amenable to rapid coating (mass production), thus, it is economically attractive. Low-temperature AD coating is desirable because it minimizes the thermal degradation of the substrate. An optimized low-cost AD coating technique is of significant interest to solar-cell engineers seeking to reduce manufacturing costs. While most previous studies ignore the importance of nozzle geometry on coating performance, this paper examines non-optimized nozzles and commensurate shockwaves using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The optimized nozzle geometry obtained from CFD can rapidly prototype nozzles. The CFD-designed nozzles with optimized geometry yielded significantly improved coating quality over non-optimized nozzles.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)771-780
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Aerosol Science
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Nov

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the New & Renewable Energy Program through a grant by the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP , 2010–3010010011 ) and the Fundamental R&D Program for Core Technology of Materials funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy of Korea. This work was also supported by the Center for Inorganic Photovoltaic Materials ( NRF-2011-0007182 ), ( NRF-2010-D00013 ), and the Converging Research Center Program through the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology ( 2010K000969 ).


  • Aerosol deposition
  • Computational fluid dynamics
  • Nozzle optimization
  • Shockwave
  • Supersonic nozzle flow

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Pollution
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
  • Atmospheric Science


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