Optimization of the Extraction Conditions of Phytosterols from Peanuts Using the Response Surface Methodology

Mirae Hong, Huijin Heo, Chido Wee, Byung Hee Kim, In Hwan Kim, Junsoo Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Peanuts, other nuts and seeds are rich in phytosterols. In this study, the extraction conditions of phytosterols from peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) were optimized using a response surface methodology (RSM) constructed by Box-Behnken design. The effects of varying the amount of 60% potassium hydroxide (X1: 5∼15 mL), saponification time at 75°C (X2: 15∼55 min), and final ethanol concentration (X3: 25∼45%) on the three major phytosterol contents in peanuts were evaluated to optimize the extraction and saponification steps using RSM. In general, the analysis of variance showed that the model appeared to be adequate, with no significant lack of fit, and with a satisfactory coefficient of determination. Based on the ridge analysis, the optimum conditions found were: X1, 10.76∼11.50; X2, 42.82∼45.95 at 75°C; and X3, 43.23∼43.70. Under the optimized conditions, the experimental values agreed with the values predicted by ridge analysis. Thus, the optimum conditions for the extraction of phytosterol from the peanut samples were developed using RSM and ridge analysis. It is believed that these results can be applied not only to peanuts but also to various other nuts and seeds with similar matrices and will hence be useful for the development of a functional food composition database of phytosterols.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)46-52
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2024 Jan

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.


  • optimization
  • peanut
  • phytosterol
  • response surface methodology
  • saponification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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