Ion concentration polarization (ICP) is one of the preconcentration techniques which can acquire a high preconcentration factor. Still, the main hurdles of ICP are its instability and low efficiency under physiological conditions with high ionic strength and abundant biomolecules. Here, we suggested a sequentially driven ICP process, which enhanced the electrokinetic force required for preconcentration, enabling enrichment of highly ionic raw samples without increasing the electric field. We acquired a 13-fold preconcentration factor (PF) in human serum using a paper-based origami structure consisting of multiple layers for three-dimensional sequential ICP (3D seq-ICP). Moreover, we demonstrated a paper-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) by 3D seq-ICP using tau protein, showing a 6-fold increase in ELISA signals.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by Human Resources Program in Energy Technology of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP), granted from the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea (No. 20194010201830). This work was also supported by the Technology development Program (S2848425) by the Ministry of SMEs and Startups (MSS, Korea).
© The Royal Society of Chemistry 2021.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Chemistry
- Biomedical Engineering