Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been extensively investigated for decades for tumor treatment because of its non-invasiveness, spatiotemporal selectivity, lower side-effects, and immune activation ability. It can be a promising treatment modality in several medical fields, including oncology, immunology, urology, dermatology, ophthalmology, cardiology, pneumology, and dentistry. Nevertheless, the clinical application of PDT is largely restricted by the drawbacks of traditional photosensitizers, limited tissue penetrability of light, inefficient induction of tumor cell death, tumor resistance to the therapy, and the severe pain induced by the therapy. Recently, various photosensitizer formulations and therapy strategies have been developed to overcome these barriers. Significantly, the introduction of nanomaterials in PDT, as carriers or photosensitizers, may overcome the drawbacks of traditional photosensitizers. Based on this, nanocomposites excited by various light sources are applied in the PDT of deep-seated tumors. Modulation of cell death pathways with co-delivered reagents promotes PDT induced tumor cell death. Relief of tumor resistance to PDT with combined therapy strategies further promotes tumor inhibition. Also, the optimization of photosensitizer formulations and therapy procedures reduces pain in PDT. Here, a systematic summary of recent advances in the fabrication of photosensitizers and the design of therapy strategies to overcome barriers in PDT is presented. Several aspects important for the clinical application of PDT in cancer treatment are also discussed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the State Key Research Development Program of China (Grant No. 2019YFB2203503), the National Natural Science Fund (Grant No. 61875138, 61961136001, and U1801254), the Science and Technology Innovation Commission of Shenzhen (KQTD2015032416270385, JCYJ201708110934-53105, JCYJ20180307164612205, GJHZ20180928160209731 and KQJSCX20180321164801762), the Innovation Team Project of the Department of Education of Guangdong Province (No. 2018KCXTD026), the Science and Technology Innovation Leading Talents Program of Guangdong Province (No. 2019TX05C343), the College Teacher Characteristic Innovation Research Project of Foshan (No. 2020SWYY01), and the CRI Project (No. 2018R1A3B1052702, JSK) of the National Research Foundation of Korea. The authors also acknowledge the support from the Instrumental Analysis Center of Shenzhen University (Xili Campus).
© The Royal Society of Chemistry.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Chemistry