Pseudomonas putida is widely distributed in nature and is capable of degrading various organic compounds due to its high metabolic versatility. The survival capacity of P. putida stems from its frequent exposure to various endogenous and exogenous oxidative stresses. Oxidative stress is an unavoidable consequence of interactions with various reactive oxygen species (ROS)-inducing agents existing in various niches. ROS could facilitate the evolution of bacteria by mutating genomes. Aerobic bacteria maintain defense mechanisms against oxidative stress throughout their evolution. To overcome the detrimental effects of oxidative stress, P. putida has developed defensive cellular systems involving induction of stress-sensing proteins and detoxification enzymes as well as regulation of oxidative stress response networks. Genetic responses to oxidative stress in P. putida differ markedly from those observed in Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. Two major redox-sensing transcriptional regulators, SoxR and OxyR, are present and functional in the genome of P. putida. However, the novel regulators FinR and HexR control many genes belonging to the E. coli SoxR regulon. Oxidative stress can be generated by exposure to antibiotics, and iron homeostasis in P. putida is crucial for bacterial cell survival during treatment with antibiotics. This review highlights and summarizes current knowledge of oxidative stress in P. putida, as a model soil bacterium, together with recent studies from molecular genetics perspectives.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology