Particle-based dynamic water drops with high surface tension in real time

Ki Hoon Kim, Jung Lee, Chang Hun Kim, Jong Hyun Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Surface tension has a great influence on the shape of the fluid interface, and is an important physical characteristic in expressing not only liquids but also liquid metals such as mercury and gallium. In the field of physics-based particle fluid simulations, it is a challenging problem to express the high surface tension generated by fluid-air or fluid-solid interaction in real time. The main reasons for this are (1) The magnitude of the force that can be stably expressed in real-time fluid simulation is limited, so when the magnitude of the surface tension increases at a large time-step, the simulation stability decreases, and (2) If we use a small time-step, a stronger force can be expressed. However, it becomes difficult to operate in real time because the computational cost increases. Techniques were proposed to solve this problem for a few specific scenes, but there has not yet been a general approach that can reliably express high surface tension in various scenarios. In this paper, we propose a real-time particle-based fluid simulation framework that can efficiently and stably express high surface tension. Unlike the previous methods, we newly model the surface tension so that the strong surface tension force generated in the droplet area with a large curvature is applied evenly in the normal and tangent directions regardless of the size of the droplet. We also propose new pressure constraints that converge quickly and accurately using this force. Our method can be effectively used in various physics-based simulation scenarios because it can easily express and control surface tension effects that appear in materials such as liquid metal as well as water.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1265
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jul

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2019R1A2C1008244) for Changhun Kim. This research was supported by a Hallym University Research Fund (HRF-202011-009). This study was carried out with the support of ‘R&D Program for Forest Science Technology (Project No. 2021390A00-2123-0105)’ provided by Korea Forest Service(Korea Forestry Promotion Institute). National Research Foundation of Korea funded by Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning, Grant/Award Number: 2017R1C1B5074984.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Dynamic water drops
  • Fluid simulations
  • High surface tension
  • Particle-based fluids
  • Real-time fluids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • General Mathematics
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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