Performance Comparison of CdTe:Na, CdTe:As, and CdTe:P Single Crystals for Solar Cell Applications

Sangsu Kim, Deok Kim, Jinki Hong, Abdallah Elmughrabi, Alima Melis, Jung Yeol Yeom, Chansun Park, Shinhaeng Cho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


We compared thermal stability, open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, and fill factor values of single-crystal Cadmium telluride (CdTe) grown using the vertical Bridgman (VB) technique and doped with group V elements (phosphorus and arsenic), and group I element (sodium), followed by an annealing process. The sodium-doped CdTe maintained a hole density of 1016 cm−3 or higher; after annealing for a long time, this decreased to 1015 cm−3 or less. The arsenic-doped CdTe maintained a hole density of approximately 1016 cm−3 even after the annealing process; however its bulk minority carrier lifetime decreased by approximately 10%. The phosphorus-doped CdTe maintained its properties after the annealing process, ultimately achieving a hole density of ~1016 cm−3 and a minority carrier lifetime of ~40 ns. The characteristics of a single-crystal solar cell were evaluated using a solar cell device that contained single-crystal CdTe with various dopants. The sodium-doped sample exhibited poor interfacial properties, and its performance decreased rapidly during annealing. The samples doped with group V elements exhibited stable characteristics even during long-term annealing. We concluded, therefore, that group V elements dopants are more suitable for CdTe single-crystal-based solar cell applications involving thermal stress conditions, such as space missions or extreme fabrication temperature environments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1408
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Feb 1


  • CdS/CdTe
  • Crystal growth
  • Single crystal
  • Solar cell
  • Thermal stability
  • Vertical Bridgman technique

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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