Perlecan Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan Is a Critical Determinant of Angiogenesis in Response to Mouse Hind-Limb Ischemia

Beiping Qiang, Sang Yup Lim, Michael Lekas, Michael A. Kuliszewski, Rafael Wolff, Azriel B. Osherov, Dmitriy Rudenko, Howard Leong-Poi, Hossein Noyan, Mansoor Husain, Kiet Tran, Karl Tryggvason, Ulf Hedin, Karin Tran-Lundmark, Bradley H. Strauss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Perlecan is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) constituent of the extracellular matrix with roles in cell growth, differentiation, and angiogenesis. The role of the HS side chains in regulating invivo angiogenesis after hind-limb ischemia is unknown. Methods: Heparan sulfate (HS)-deficient perlecan (Hspg2δ3/δ3) mice (n= 35), containing normal perlecan core protein but deficient in HS side chains, and wild-type (n= 33) littermates underwent surgical induction of hind-limb ischemia. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEU) provided serial assessment of hind-limb perfusion. Harvested muscles underwent immunostaining for endothelial cell density (CD31), real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA expression and western blot analysis for VEGF and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2 protein expression at days 2 and28. Results: Serial LDPI showed significantly greater perfusion recovery in ischemic limbs of wild-type compared with Hspg2δ3/δ3 mice. CEU showed that normalized microvascular perfusion was increased in wild-type compared with Hspg2δ3/δ3 mice at day 28 (0.67 ± 0.12 vs 0.26 ± 0.08; P= 0.001). CD31-positive cell counts were significantly higher in wild-type compared with Hspg2δ3/δ3 mice on day 28 (122 ± 30 cells vs 84 ± 34 cells per high-power field [HPF]; P < 0.05). Endogenous VEGF mRNA expression (P < 0.05) and VEGF protein expression (P < 0.002) were significantly decreased in the ischemic limbs of Hspg2δ3/δ3 mice compared with wild-type mice at day 2 and day 28, respectively. FGF2 protein expression showed no significant differences. Conclusions: These results suggest that the HS side chains in perlecan are important mediators of the angiogenic response to ischemia through a mechanism that involves upregulation of VEGF expression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1444-1451
Number of pages8
JournalCanadian Journal of Cardiology
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Nov 1
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research .

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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