Perspectives for Improving the Tumor Targeting of Nanomedicine via the EPR Effect in Clinical Tumors

Jinseong Kim, Hanhee Cho, Dong Kwon Lim, Min Kyung Joo, Kwangmeyung Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Over the past few decades, the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect of nanomedicine has been a crucial phenomenon in targeted cancer therapy. Specifically, understanding the EPR effect has been a significant aspect of delivering anticancer agents efficiently to targeted tumors. Although the therapeutic effect has been demonstrated in experimental models using mouse xenografts, the clinical translation of the EPR effect of nanomedicine faces several challenges due to dense extracellular matrix (ECM), high interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) levels, and other factors that arise from tumor heterogeneity and complexity. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of the EPR effect of nanomedicine in clinics is essential to overcome the hurdles of the clinical translation of nanomedicine. This paper introduces the basic mechanism of the EPR effect of nanomedicine, the recently discussed challenges of the EPR effect of nanomedicine, and various strategies of recent nanomedicine to overcome the limitations expected from the patients’ tumor microenvironments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number10082
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Volume24
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Jun

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by grants from the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science (NRF-2022M3H4A1A03067401).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.

Keywords

  • clinical translation
  • EPR effect
  • nanomedicine
  • tumor microenvironments

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry

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