The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the principal organelle responsible for correct protein folding, a step in protein synthesis that is critical for the functional conformation of proteins. ER stress is a primary feature of secretory cells and is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous human diseases, such as certain neurodegenerative and cardiometabolic disorders. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a defense mechanism to attenuate ER stress and maintain the homeostasis of the organism. Two major degradation systems, including the proteasome and autophagy, are involved in this defense system. If ER stress overwhelms the capacity of the cell’s defense mechanisms, apoptotic death may result. This review is focused on the various pharmacological modulators that can protect cells from damage induced by ER stress. The possible mechanisms for cytoprotection are also discussed.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- AMPK-activated protein kinase
- Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers
- Endoplasmic reticulum stress
- Glucagon-like peptide-1
- Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
- Unfolded protein response
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry