Photothermal Lithography for Realizing a Stretchable Multilayer Electronic Circuit Using a Laser

Sangmin Song, Hyejun Hong, Kyung Yeun Kim, Kyun Kyu Kim, Jaewoo Kim, Daeyeon Won, Soyoung Yun, Joonhwa Choi, Young In Ryu, Kyungwoo Lee, Jaeho Park, Joohyuk Kang, Junhyuk Bang, Hyunseon Seo, Yu Chan Kim, Daeho Lee, Haechang Lee, Jinwoo Lee, Suk Won Hwang, Seung Hwan KoHojeong Jeon, Wonryung Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Photolithography is a well-established fabrication method for realizing multilayer electronic circuits. However, it is challenging to adopt photolithography to fabricate intrinsically stretchable multilayer electronic circuits fully composed of an elastomeric matrix, due to the opacity of thick stretchable nanocomposite conductors. Here, we present photothermal lithography that can pattern elastomeric conductors and via holes using pulsed lasers. The photothermal-patterned stretchable nanocomposite conductor exhibits 3 times higher conductivity (5940 S cm-1) and 5 orders of magnitude lower resistance change (R/R0 = 40) under a 30% strained 5000th cyclic stretch, compared to those of a screen-printed conductor, based on the percolation network formed by spatial heating of the laser. In addition, a 50 μm sized stretchable via holes can be patterned on the passivation without material ablation and electrical degradation of the bottom conductor. By repeatedly patterning the conductor and via holes, highly conductive and durable multilayer circuits can be stacked with layer-by-layer material integration. Finally, a stretchable wireless pressure sensor and passive matrix LED array are demonstrated, thus showing the potential for a stretchable multilayer electronic circuit with durability, high density, and multifunctionality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21443-21454
Number of pages12
JournalACS nano
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Nov 14

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Chemical Society.


  • laser fabrication
  • photothermal lithography
  • stretchable electronics
  • stretchable multilayer electronic circuit
  • stretchable nanocomposites

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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