Phylogenetic analysis of Korean native Chrysanthemum species based on morphological characteristics

Su Jeong Kim, Chang Hee Lee, Jongyun Kim, Ki Sun Kim

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25 Citations (Scopus)


In the analysis of genetic relationship among Korean native Chrysanthemum species, the morphological characteristics of 15 taxa of Chrysanthemum species were investigated. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis were conducted for the grouping based on the morphological data. Fifteen taxa of Chrysanthemum species were classified into three groups through PCA and cluster analysis based on the general plant growth and flowering characteristics. Groups I and II included non-bushy type and big size flower plants, while Group III included bushy type and small size flower plants. Group I had nine C. zawadskii subspecies: acutilobum, acutilobum var. tenuisectum, acutilobum var. alpinum, lucidum, coreanum, naktongense, yezoense, latilobum, and latilobum var. leiophyllum. Group I was found to be desirable species as garden plants because of the white or pink flowers with a relatively large size (flower head diameter of 43.5-67.6 mm), good plant height (19.3-64.6 cm), and long flowering period (24-39 d). C. lineare was the only species included in Group II with unique cone head shaped seeds and no petiole. Group III included five C. indicum species and related species: C. indicum, C. indicum var. albescens, C. indicum var. acuta, C. boreale, and C. makinoi. Group III had great potentials as edible medicinal resources; e.g., chrysanthemum flower tea, which is abundant in number and has small sized flowers with white or yellow petals. The study provided a clear diagnostic key for the classification showing the species-specific plant form attributable to unique leaves, branch type, plant height, flower size, and flowering habits.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)278-289
Number of pages12
JournalScientia Horticulturae
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Aug 15
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The work was supprted by a grant from the Rural Development Administration (ATIS code PJ006460 and PJ008764) in Republic of Korea. The authors would like to thank Dr. Jeong-Hun Lee and Ms. Mi Yeong Park for their assistance on the herbaria vouchers specimen production and Ms. Gyeong-Ran Doh for the microscopic examinations of the leaf tissues. The authors are also grateful to Ms. Hye-Rim Lee of the RDA for the critical review of the statistical analysis of the study.


  • Chrysanthemum
  • Cluster analysis
  • Phylogenetic analysis
  • Plant morphology
  • Principal component analysis
  • Species classification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Horticulture


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