Breast milk is a valuable biological specimen to assess maternal and infant exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). In this study, 208 breast milk samples were collected from 89 participants during lactation period, at <7, 15, 30, and 90 days postpartum, in four cities in Korea, and were determined for 19 PBDE congeners. The total PBDE concentrations (σPBDE) ranged from 0.23 to 68.4 (mean: 2.73) ng/g lipid weight, and were within the ranges reported for European and Asian countries. Within a month of lactation after delivery, no significant changes were found in the PBDE concentrations. The predominance of BDE 153 rather than BDE 47 was found in the most samples that BDE 153 was detected, and was likely to be associated with stepwise debromination of BDE 209. No associations were found between PBDE concentrations in breast milk and demographic parameters, except for σPBDE with maternal age and delivery mode. Certain types of diet such as corn, seafood and nut correlated significantly with PBDE levels in breast milk. The estimated daily intakes of σPBDE for breast-feeding infants were lower than the guidelines proposed by the US EPA, indicating limited health risk from PBDEs through breast feeding.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We would like to express our gratitude to all participant mothers for their great efforts in collecting breast milk samples. This study was supported by a grant from Korea Food & Drug Administration (KFDA, 11162KFDA722 ).
- Estimated daily intake
- Health risk
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Environmental Science