Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure in residents living near a cement factory with kilns

Yong Min Cho, Geun Bae Kim, Yong Sung Cho, Min Seok Choi, Seung Hun Ryu, Seung Hyun Choi, Young Koo Park, Jae Wook Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: This study was performed to investigate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure in the area around a cement factory with kilns using waste, including refuse plastic fuel.

Methods: Atmospheric total suspended particulates (TSPs) for each of an exposed area and a non-exposed area were collected. Similarly, urine samples were collected from 330 subjects in the exposed area and 126 subjects in the non-exposed area. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was used to analyze PAHs in the collected TSP samples and the PAH metabolites, urinary 2-naphthol (2-NAP) and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), of the residents. The concentrations of urinary 2-NAP and 1-OHP were adjusted by creatinine concentrations.

Conclusions: In addition to the known risk factors, this study indicated that living near a cement factory with kilns is also a risk factor for PAH exposure.

Results: The atmospheric concentrations of PAHs, including naphthalene and pyrene, were higher in the exposed area than those in the non-exposed area. The geometric means (GMs) of the urinary 2-NAP concentrations in the exposed and non-exposed groups without work experience were 4.06 and 1.55 μg/g creatinine, respectively. The GMs of the urinary 1-OHP concentrations were 0.26 and 0.14 μg/g creatinine, respectively. The results showed that the concentrations of PAH metabolites were significantly higher in the exposed group than those in the non-exposed group (p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis with the log-transformed urinary 2-NAP and 1-OHP concentrations and other variables indicated a strong correlation of residence in the exposed area and smoking with an increase in the urinary 2-NAP and 1-OHP concentrations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)889-896
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Oct 18
Externally publishedYes


  • 1-hydroxypyrene
  • 2-naphthol
  • Cement factory
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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