Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are nanomaterials that have been employed in generating diverse materials. We previously reported that CNTs induce cell death in macrophages, possibly via asbestosis. Therefore, we generated CNT-attached polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), which is an established polymer in membrane technology, and then examined whether CNT-attached PVDF is immunologically safe for medical purposes compared to CNT alone. To test this, we treated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages (RAW cells) with CNT-attached PVDF and analyzed the production of nitric oxide (NO), a potent proinflammatory mediator, in these cells. RAW cells treated with CNT-attached PVDF showed reduced NO production in response to lipopolysaccharide. However, the same treatment also decreased the cell number suggesting that this treatment can alter the homeostasis of RAW cells. Although cell cycle of RAW cells was increased by PVDF treatment with or without CNTs, apoptosis was enhanced in these cells. Taken together, these results indicate that PVDF with or without CNTs modulates inflammatory responses possibly due to activation-induced cell death in macrophages.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We appreciate Kyong Hoon Kim, Seung-min Yeon, and Ji Hwa Hong for their critical comments. This study is supported by Basic Science Research Program (Grant No. NRF-2014R1A4A1007304 and NRF-2017R1A2B4003376) of the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Korea government.
© 2017. The Korean Association of Immunologists.
- Carbon nanotubes
- Cell death
- Nitric oxide
- Polyvinylidene fluoride
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy
- Infectious Diseases