Population-based and personalized reference intervals for liver and spleen volumes in healthy individuals and those with viral hepatitis

Dong Wook Kim, Jiyeon Ha, Seung Soo Lee, Ji Hye Kwon, Na Young Kim, Yu Sub Sung, Jee Seok Yoon, Heung Il Suk, Yedaun Lee, Bo Kyeong Kang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Reference intervals guiding volumetric assessment of the liver and spleen have yet to be established. Purpose: To establish population-based and personalized reference intervals for liver volume, spleen volume, and liver-to-spleen volume ratio (LSVR). Materials and Methods: This retrospective study consecutively included healthy adult liver donors from 2001 to 2013 (reference group) and from 2014 to 2016 (healthy validation group) and patients with viral hepatitis from 2007 to 2017. Liver volume, spleen volume, and LSVR were measured with CT by using a deep learning algorithm. In the reference group, the reference intervals for the volume indexes were determined by using the population-based (ranges encompassing the central 95% of donors) and personalized (quantile regression modeling of the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles as a function of age, sex, height, and weight) approaches. The validity of the reference intervals was evaluated in the healthy validation group and the viral hepatitis group. Results: The reference and healthy validation groups had 2989 donors (mean age 6 standard deviation, 30 years 6 9; 1828 men) and 472 donors (mean age, 30 years 6 9; 334 men), respectively. The viral hepatitis group had 158 patients (mean age, 48 years 6 12; 95 men). The population-based reference intervals were 824.5–1700.0 cm3 for liver volume, 81.1–322.0 cm3 for spleen volume, and 3.96–13.78 for LSVR. Formulae and a web calculator (https://i-pacs.com/calculators) were presented to calculate the personalized reference intervals. In the healthy validation group, both the population-based and personalized reference intervals were used to classify the volume indexes of 94%–96% of the donors as falling within the reference interval. In the viral hepatitis group, when compared with the population-based reference intervals, the personalized reference intervals helped identify more patients with volume indexes outside the reference interval (liver volume, 21.5% [34 of 158] vs 13.3% [21 of 158], P = .01; spleen volume, 29.1% [46 of 158] vs 22.2% [35 of 158], P = .01; LSVR, 35.4% [56 of 158] vs 26.6% [42 of 158], P , .001). Conclusion: Reference intervals derived from a deep learning approach in healthy adults may enable evidence-based assessments of liver and spleen volume in clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)339-347
Number of pages9
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Nov

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea grant funded by the Korean government (MSIT) (2020R1F1A1048826) and the Bio and Medical Technology Development Program of the NRF, which is funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT, South Korea (NRF-2016M3A9A7918706).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Radiological Society of North America Inc.. All rights reserved.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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