Practical head-outflow relationship definition methodology that accounts for varied water-supply methods

Dong Eil Chang, Do Guen Yoo, Joong Hoon Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Achieving reliable pressure-driven analysis (PDA) results that account for anomalies within water-pipe networks requires a head-outflow relationship (HOR) model that can calculate supply flow rate according to the supply pressure at each node. Many studies have suggested HOR models, but a methodology to define HORs that considers the actual residential environment of users and differing water-supply methods for residential buildings has not yet been proposed. This study considered water-use data from buildings and actual differences in residential environments in a surveyed area (including building heights, topography, and water systems within buildings) and water-supply methods (indirect/direct water supply, existence of a pump within buildings) to develop a methodology and derive a representative HOR for the target area for PDA. Further, a representative HOR was determined for each block by applying the developed methodology for two blocks with similar residential environments but different water-use patterns. It confirmed that the HOR induced through this process could provide high water-supply performance despite a low supply head and needed to reflect the diversity of the water-supply method. The proposed HOR-definition methodology can be easily applied in water-pipe network design and operation processes and ensure objectivity and rationality of HOR selection to yield reliable PDA results.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4755
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jun 1


  • Demand-driven analysis
  • Head-outflow relationship
  • Pressure-driven analysis
  • Secondary water-pipe network
  • Water supply

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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