Practical telepathology using a digital camera and the internet.

Eung Seok Lee, In Sun Kim, Jong Sang Choi, Bom Woo Yeom, Han Kyeom Kim, Geung Hawn Ahn, Anthony S.Y. Leong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


Digital camera technology has developed rapidly and a large choice of reasonably priced, user-oriented models are now available. These can be used for both macroscopic and microscopic photography with good resolution. Internet transmission of digital images also makes it possible to consult pathologists anywhere in the world. This study tests a simple, fast, and inexpensive method for practical transmission of images for diagnosis using a digital camera and the Internet. Using a commercial digital camera mounted with a phototube adapter to a light microscope (6 images per case on average), 2210 digital images (310 Mb) from 347 cases of gastrointestinal, lung, and uterus specimens were captured. Each image, stored in medium compression JPEG (Joint Photographers Experts Group) format with 1024 x 768 pixel resolution, required approximately 5 seconds to capture after the case had been reviewed and appropriate fields for imaging selected (30 seconds per case on average). The images were transmitted from Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, to Korea University Hospital, Seoul, and John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, Australia. Transmission was 100% successful with a total upload time of 3 hours for 310 MB of data (31 seconds per case on average). The images were downloaded in 2 hours and viewed on a 17-inch color monitor with a maximal resolution of 1280 x 1024 pixels. Telepathology diagnoses were made with 95% and 97% concurrence by two pathologists at Korea University Hospital and John Hunter Hospital, respectively. We suggest that the current level of commercial technology yields fast, convenient and economical tools for practical telepathology diagnosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)159-165
Number of pages7
JournalTelemedicine journal and e-health : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Informatics
  • Health Information Management


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