Present Status and Research Prospects of Tin-based Perovskite Solar Cells

Syed Azkar Ul Hasan, David S. Lee, Sang Hyuk Im, Ki Ha Hong

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

63 Citations (Scopus)


Sn-based halide perovskites have attracted much interest due to their highly valuable electrical and optical properties. The promising optical and electrical properties of Sn-based perovskites have enticed a lot of research to focus on developing the strategies and explore the in-depth material characteristics. Sn-halide perovskites exhibit apparent merits and demerits. The ideal electrical and optical properties are even better than that of Pb-analogs, namely close-to-optimal bandgap, strong optical absorption, and good carrier mobilities. However, the present achievement of Sn-halide perovskite solar cells is not satisfactory, which is commonly attributed to relatively low defect tolerance, fast crystallization, and oxidative instability. The efficiency of Sn-based perovskites is far ahead, with a 9% power conversion efficiency (PCE), than the other (Ge, Bi, Sb, Cu, etc.) Pb-free options but simultaneously lagging far behind Pb-based analogs that have a 25.2% PCE. This review is aimed at presenting milestone works and revealing the pros and cons of Sn-halide perovskites. In addition, the defect physics of Sn-based perovskites is described. The improvement of open-circuit voltage is a critical issue for Sn-halide perovskites to compete with Pb-based perovskites. The understanding of defect physics plays an instrumental role in designing strategies for efficient and robust Sn-halide perovskite solar cells.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1900310
JournalSolar RRL
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Feb 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Sn perovskites
  • defect physics
  • lead-free perovskites
  • prospective
  • stability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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