Red macroalgae are currently considered as renewable resources owing to their high carbohydrate and low lignin and hemicellulose contents. However, utilization of red macroalgae has been limited owing to the lack of established methods for pretreatment and an effective saccharification system. Furthermore, marine red macroalgae consist of the non-favorable mixed sugars for industrial microorganisms. In this review, we suggest strategies for converting red macroalgae to bio-based products, focusing on the pretreatment and saccharification of red macroalgae to produce fermentable sugars and the microbial fermentation of these sugars by industrial microorganisms. In particular, some recent breakthroughs for the efficient utilization of red macroalgae include the discovery of key enzymes for the complete monomerization of red macroalgal carbohydrate and the catabolic pathway of 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose, the most abundant sugar in red macroalgae. This review provides a comprehensive perspective for the efficient utilization of red macroalgae as sustainable resources to produce bio-based products.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Roesijadi, G., Jones, S.B., Snowden-Swan, L.J., Zhu, Y., 2010. Macroalgae as a biomass feedstock: a preliminary analysis. U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
This work was supported by the Fishery Commercialization Technology Development Program of the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries (2012100788). This research was performed at the Korea University Food Safety Hall for the Institute of Biomedical Science and Food Safety.
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
- Red macroalgae
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Waste Management and Disposal