Propagation & level: Factors influencing in the ICT composite index at the school level

Hiroyuki Aoki, Jamee Kim, Wongyu Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Many nations are greatly affected by their education policies, and the educational level of different schools is relevant to a nation's ICT policy. In the area of ICT, Korea has achieved quite high levels of competency. This study analyzed the level of ICT competency of 4490 elementary and 2419 middle schools in Korea within the context of the Korean educational system and social circumstances. The findings are as follows: first, differences in ICT level were greater among elementary schools than among middle schools; and secondly, ICT usage had a great impact on the ICT composite index for both elementary and middle schools. For both elementary and middle schools, the indicators that were found to have the greatest impact on the ICT composite index were 'effort to make use of computers and ICT resources' and 'teaching of ICT-related subjects.' Another variable that affected ICT competency was the level of ICT competency among the teachers and their willingness to use ICT in their lessons. This study found that merely the building of an ICT infrastructure is not enough to enhance the ICT level of schools. In addition to an ICT infrastructure the efforts of the teachers and administration were more important than any other factors. The findings of this study might provide useful suggestions to other nations that are endeavoring to enhance the ICT levels of their schools.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)310-324
Number of pages15
JournalComputers and Education
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Jan


  • ICT composite index
  • ICT level
  • Input component and usage component
  • Media in education
  • Pedagogical issue

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science
  • Education


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