Background: Chebulic acid (CA) isolated from T. chebula, which has been reported for treating asthma, as a potent anti-oxidant resources. Exposure to ambient urban particulate matter (UPM) considered as a risk for cardiopulmonary vascular dysfunction. To investigate the protective effect of CA against UPM-mediated collapse of the pulmonary alveolar epithelial (PAE) cell (NCI-H441), barrier integrity parameters, and their elements were evaluated in PAE. Methods: CA was acquired from the laboratory previous reports. UPM was obtained from the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, and these were collected in St. Louis, MO, over a 24-month period and used as a standard reference. To confirm the protection of PAE barrier integrity, paracellular permeability and the junctional molecules were estimated with determination of transepithelial electrical resistance, Western Blotting, RT-PCR, and fluorescent staining. Results: UPM aggravated the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PAE and also decreased mRNA and protein levels of junction molecules and barrier integrity in NCI-H441. However, CA repressed the ROS in PAE, also improved barrier integrity by protecting the junctional parameters in NCI-H411. Conclusions: These data showed that CA resulted in decreased UPM-induced ROS formation, and the protected the integrity of the tight junctions against UPM exposure to PAE barrier.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by a Korea University Grant (K1420071). This study was also supported by School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology for BK21 PLUS, Korea University. The authors thank the Institute of Biomedical Science & Food Safety, Korea University Food Safety Hall, for providing the equipment and facilities. The funding source had no role in the design, conduct, or analysis of the study or in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
© 2017 The Author(s).
- Alveolar barrier dysfunction
- Chebulic acid
- Pulmonary alveolus
- Urban particulate matter
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Complementary and alternative medicine