UVA is responsible for numerous biological effects on the skin, including premature aging characterized by wrinkles, leathery texture, and mottled pigmentation. The objective of this study was evaluating the protective effect of ginseng leaf extract prepared by Ultraflo L on skin from photodamage. Anti-wrinkle effect of ginseng leaf extract with or without Ultraflo L treatment were tested on human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) A. Ginseng leaves inhibited ROS generation, GHS depletion, and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 induced by UVA irradiation. The glutathione (GSH) content of the cells was significantly increased by over 25 μg mL-1 of Ultraflo-treated extract (UTGL) as well as by over 100 μg mL-1 of nonenzyme-treated extract (NEGL) compared to control. UTGL and NEGL treatments significantly decreased expression of metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and 9 compared with control, but inhibitory effects of two groups on expression of MMPs were not significantly different. Overall, ULtraflo L-treated ginseng leaves inhibited ROS generation, GHS depletion, and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in UVA photodamaged HaCat cells. From these results, enzyme-treated ginseng leaf extract has advantages over untreated ginseng leaves and have potential as a skin protective ingredient against UVA-induced photodamage.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by a grant from RRI of KIAT, Korea (#B0009759).
- Oxidative stress
- Panax ginseng leaves
- Ultraflo L
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
- Molecular Biology