Protein-Added Healthy Lunch-Boxes Combined with Exercise for Improving Physical Fitness and Vascular Function in Pre-Frail Older Women: A Community-Based Randomized Controlled Trial

Wonil Park, Jaesung Lee, Kwangseok Hong, Hun Young Park, Saejong Park, Nahyun Kim, Jonghoon Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: Preventive or therapeutic interventions are key to maintaining independence in pre-frail and/or frail elderly. Therefore, we investigated whether multi-component interventions were effective in physical fitness levels and vascular functions in pre-frail older women. Patients and Methods: Sixty participants aged ≥ 65 years (81.5 ± 4.3 yrs) were divided equally into control group, diet group, aerobic exercise and diet group, and aerobic exercise with electromyostimulation and diet group. For 8 weeks, the participants received a set of protein-added meals twice daily on weekdays. The aerobic exercise groups performed 45 mins of stepping exercise at 50–70% of the maximal heart rate for 3 days/week, and the aerobic exercise with electromyostimulation was applied on each limb in 8 weeks. Blood pressure, physical fitness, cardiovascular biomarkers, pulse wave velocity, and flow-mediated dilation were measured before and after the 8-week. Results: There were no group differences in age, height, weight, body mass index, free fat mass, and %body fat at baseline. The right grip strength significantly increased in the diet group, aerobic exercise and diet group, and aerobic exercise with electromyostimulation and diet group (p < 0.05). Short physical performance battery, 6-min walking distance, and flow-mediated dilation significantly increased in the aerobic exercise and diet group and aerobic exercise with electromyostimulation and diet group (p < 0.05). Blood pressure and pulse wave velocity did not differ between interventions. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels significantly increased after 8 weeks in all intervention groups (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglyceride, insulin, Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance, nitric oxide, and C-reactive protein levels. Conclusion: These results show that multi-component interventions appear to improve physical fitness and vascular function in pre-frail older women. Thus, possible strategies to prevent early frailty including proper nutrition and exercise may be needed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13-27
Number of pages15
JournalClinical Interventions in Aging
Volume18
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by NRF (National Research Foundation of Korea) Grant funded by the Korean Government (NRF-2017-Fostering Core Leaders of the Future Basic Science Program/Global Ph.D. Fellowship Program). This research was supported by the Chung-Ang University Research Grants in 2022. We thank the company Massng Ltd, for providing lunchbox and financial support.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Park et al.

Keywords

  • aerobic exercise
  • electromyostimulation
  • physical fitness
  • pre-frail
  • protein-added
  • vascular function

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

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