Provision and maintenance of presence and immersion in hand-held virtual reality through motion based interaction

Jane Hwang, Gerard J. Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Hand-held devices are also becoming computationally more powerful and being equipped with special sensors and non-traditional displays for diverse applications aside from just making phone calls. As such, it raises the question of whether realizing virtual reality, providing a minimum level of immersion and presence, might be possible on a hand-held device capable of only relatively "small" display. In this paper, we propose that motion based interaction can widen the perceived field of view (FOV) more than the actual physical FOV, and in turn, increase the sense of presence and immersion up to a level comparable to that of a desktop or projection display based VR systems. We have implemented a prototype hand-held VR platform and conducted two experiments to verify our hypothesis. Our experimental study has revealed that when a motion based interaction was used, the FOV perceived by the user for the small hand held device was significantly greater than (around 50%) the actual. Other larger display platforms using the conventional button or mouse/keyboard interface did not exhibit such a phenomenon. In addition, the level of user felt presence in the hand-held platform was higher than or comparable to those in VR platforms with larger displays. We hypothesize that this phenomenon is related to and analogous to the way the human vision system compensates for differences in acuity resolution in the eye/retina through the saccadic activity. The paper demonstrates the distinct possibility of realizing reasonable virtual reality even with devices with a small visual FOV and limited processing power.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)547-559
Number of pages13
JournalComputer Animation and Virtual Worlds
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Nov


  • hand-held virtual reality
  • immersion
  • motion based interaction
  • perceived field of view
  • presence
  • proprioception

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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