Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) were intratracheally instilled into lungs at concentrations of 0, 0.15, and 1.5 mg/kg bodyweight to 7-week-old Sprague–Dawley rats. The cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and oxidative stress were evaluated, followed by proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lungs of rats. The CuO NPs-exposed groups revealed dose-dependent increases in total cells, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, lactate dyhydrogenase, and total protein levels in BALF. Inflammatory cytokines, including macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and tumor necrosis factor-α, were increased in the CuO NPs-treated groups. The expression levels of catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, and peroxiredoxin-2 were downregulated, whereas that of superoxide dismutase-2 was upregulated in the CuO NPs-exposed groups. Five heat shock proteins were downregulated in rats exposed to high concentrations of CuO NPs. In proteomic analysis, 17 proteins were upregulated or downregulated, and 6 proteins were validated via Western blot analysis. Significant upregulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase and fidgetin-like 1 and downregulation of annexin II, HSP 47 and proteasome α1 occurred in the CuO NPs exposed groups. Taken together, this study provides additional insight into pulmonary cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity as well as oxidative stress in rats exposed to CuO NPs. Proteomic analysis revealed potential toxicological biomarkers of CuO NPs, which also reveals the toxicity mechanisms of CuO NPs.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Environment Research (NIER), and funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea (NIER-RP2013-131).
© 2022 by the authors.
- bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
- copper oxide
- rat lung
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry