As an organochloride pesticide, pyridaben (PDB) has been used on various plants, including fruiting plants and other crops. Because of emerging concerns regarding exposure to pesticides, the deleterious effects of PDB, including neuronal disease and reproductive abnormalities, have been determined. However, the intracellular mechanisms that contribute to the effects of PDB on the male reproductive system are still unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of PDB on the male reproductive organ, focusing on the testes using mouse testicular cells. We demonstrated that PDB suppressed cellular proliferation of mouse Leydig (TM3) and Sertoli (TM4) cells. Additionally, PDB disturbed calcium homeostasis via mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Furthermore, PDB inhibited transcriptional gene expression regarding the cell cycle, as well as steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, which are the primary functions of TM3 and TM4 cells. Moreover, we verified via western blot analysis that PDB dysregulated the intracellular cell signaling pathways in mitochondrial-associated membranes and the Mapk/Pi3k pathway. Lastly, we confirmed that PDB efficiently suppressed the spheroid formation of TM3 and TM4 cells mimicking an in vivo environment. Collectively, the current results indicate that PDB induces testicular toxicity and male reproductive abnormalities by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress and calcium imbalance.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT(MSIT) (No. 2018R1C1B6009048 ).
This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT(MSIT) (No. 2018R1C1B6009048).
- Male infertility
- Mitochondrial dysfunction
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis