Quantification of the Head-Outflow Relationship for Pressure-Driven Analysis in Water Distribution Networks

Dong Eil Chang, Ho Min Lee, Do Guen Yoo, Joong Hoon Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Pressure-driven analysis (PDA) has been applied as a general analysis technique because it can simulate a real water supply network based on reasonable theoretical assumptions. However, to provide reliable PDA results, it is necessary to determine a head-outflow relationship (HOR) expression that enables the calculation of the available outflow at each node at certain pressure intervals. In this study, experiment-based HOR quantification methods for PDA were proposed and the characteristics of HOR were first confirmed under various experimental conditions. To identify the hydraulic behaviors of WDNs (water distribution networks) for situations that are practically infeasible and cannot be reproduced, a WDN model was fabricated. Normal and abnormal conditions that cannot be immediately measured were configured to identify the relationship between the head and outflow under individual conditions via the WDN model. The goodness-of-fit of the various HORs were identified using the data from each node. Appropriate parameter values were defined and PDA uncertainty was confirmed. Finally, the HORs obtained through the experiments were selected instead of assumed HORs. Therefore, this study not only improves the reliability of PDA results, but also provides workers with an improved understanding of the correlation between heads and outflows at WDNs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3353-3363
Number of pages11
JournalKSCE Journal of Civil Engineering
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Aug 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as “Global Top project (2016002120004)”.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019, Korean Society of Civil Engineers.


  • demand-driven analysis
  • head-outflow relationship expression
  • multiple pipe failure
  • pressure-driven analysis
  • water distribution network

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering


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