Quantifying Photovoltaic surplus at an urban scale: A case study in Seoul

Wei Liao, Chulho Kim, Yiqiang Xiao, Hanjoo Kim, Tageui Hong, Shi Yin, Yeonsook Heo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


With the increasing photovoltaic (PV) penetration in urban buildings, the temporal overproduction of PV electricity presents both a challenge and an opportunity for solar energy utilization in high-PV-penetration urban environments. While existing research has focused on strategies for improving self-consumption, little to no information exists on the magnitude and implications of PV surplus at the urban level. Questions such as when and where PV surplus occurs in the urban area remain unanswered, and there is a lack of established knowledge about how urban contexts relate to PV surplus. Therefore, this study aimed to quantify the PV surplus in a high roof-PV penetration scenario at an urban scale, using a method that couples hourly PV production and electricity consumption data from individual buildings in urban areas. The paper explored two aspects of PV surplus, namely PV surplus hours (PVsH) and PV surplus energy (PVsE), which were utilized to identify the temporal occurrence and quantify the amount of PV surplus, respectively. One residential and one office area in Seoul were examined. Results showed abundant PV surplus resources in case areas, especially in residential buildings. A wide range of surplus distribution was found among the buildings, especially in the office area. The PV surplus peaked between late spring and early summer. A noticeable correlation between building morphology and PVsE was detected. The results suggested the PV surplus of the residential area is sufficient for localizing charging demand by comparing PV surplus against the electricity demand from a hypothetical scenario of a full electric vehicle (EV) community.

Original languageEnglish
Article number113523
JournalEnergy and Buildings
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Nov 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier B.V.


  • Energy prosumer
  • High PV penetration on roofs
  • Implications
  • Photovoltaic (PV) surplus
  • Urban scale

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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