Quaternary Census Transform Based on the Human Visual System for Stereo Matching

Seowon Ji, Seung Wook Kim, Dongpan Lim, Seung Won Jung, Sung Jea Ko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


The census transform is a non-parametric local transform that is widely used in stereo matching. This transform encodes the structural information of a local patch into a binary code stream representing the relative intensity ordering of the pixels within the patch. Despite its high performance in stereo matching, the census transform often generates identical binary code streams for two different patches because it simply thresholds the pixels within the patch at the center pixel intensity. To overcome this problem, we introduce a quaternary census transform that encodes the local structural information into a quaternary code stream by employing both the relative intensity ordering and the minimum visibility threshold of the human eye known as the just-noticeable difference. Moreover, because the human eye activates different areas of the retina based on brightness, the patch size for the proposed quaternary census transform adaptively varies depending on the luminance of each pixel. Experimental results on well-known Middlebury stereo datasets prove that the proposed transform outperforms the other census transform-based methods in terms of the accuracy of stereo matching.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9121926
Pages (from-to)116501-116514
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported in part by the S. LSI Division, Samsung Electronics Company Ltd., Hwaseong, South Korea.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2013 IEEE.


  • Census transform
  • depth estimation
  • disparity map
  • human visual system
  • similarity cost calculation
  • stereo image processing
  • stereo matching

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)


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