QuTiP 2: A Python framework for the dynamics of open quantum systems

J. R. Johansson, P. D. Nation, Franco Nori

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1131 Citations (Scopus)


We present version 2 of QuTiP, the Quantum Toolbox in Python. Compared to the preceding version [J.R. Johansson, P.D. Nation, F. Nori, Comput. Phys. Commun. 183 (2012) 1760.], we have introduced numerous new features, enhanced performance, and made changes in the Application Programming Interface (API) for improved functionality and consistency within the package, as well as increased compatibility with existing conventions used in other scientific software packages for Python. The most significant new features include efficient solvers for arbitrary time-dependent Hamiltonians and collapse operators, support for the Floquet formalism, and new solvers for Bloch-Redfield and Floquet-Markov master equations. Here we introduce these new features, demonstrate their use, and give a summary of the important backward-incompatible API changes introduced in this version.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1234-1240
Number of pages7
JournalComputer Physics Communications
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Apr


  • Bloch-Redfield
  • Floquet-Markov
  • Lindblad
  • Master equation
  • Open quantum systems
  • Python
  • Quantum Monte Carlo

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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