Real-time depth-of-field rendering using anisotropically filtered mipmap interpolation

Sungkil Lee, Gerard Jounghyun Kim, Seungmoon Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

58 Citations (Scopus)


This article presents a real-time GPU-based post-filtering method for rendering acceptable depth-of-field effects suited for virtual reality. Blurring is achieved by nonlinearly interpolating mipmap images generated from a pinhole image. Major artifacts common in the post-filtering techniques such as bilinear magnification artifact, intensity leakage, and blurring discontinuity are practically eliminated via magnification with a circular filter, anisotropic mipmapping, and smoothing of blurring degrees. The whole framework is accelerated using GPU programs for constant and scalable real-time performance required for virtual reality. We also compare our method to recent GPU-based methods in terms of image quality and rendering performance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4641923
Pages (from-to)453-464
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2009 May

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments. This work was supported in parts by Grants (R01-2006-000-11142-0 and R0A-2008-000-20087-0) funded from KOSEF and by an ITRC support program (IITA-2008-C1090-0804-0002) from IITA, all by the Korean Government. The “Sponza Atrium,” “Can and Corn box,” “Forest,” “Dragon,” and “Neptune” models are provided through the courtesies of Marko Dabrovic,, admin2 (at, the Stanford 3D Scanning Repository, and IMATI and INRIA by the AIM@SHAPE Shape Repository, respectively. “Elephant and Zebra” models were taken from [39]. Correspondence concerning this article can be addressed to Seungmoon Choi.


  • Anisotropic filtering
  • Depth of field
  • Mipmap interpolation
  • Virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Signal Processing
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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