Real-time fMRI-based neurofeedback reinforces causality of attention networks

Jong Hwan Lee, Junghoe Kim, Seung Schik Yoo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI)-based neurofeedback method for the modulation of the effective connectivity (EC) of causality between attention-related neuronal activities. In participants who received the feedback of attention-related neuronal activity, the EC estimated from Granger causality analysis was reinforced within the task-related network, such as between the bilateral cingulate gyri and frontal cortices, whereas the EC between the task-related network and task-unrelated resting-state network, including the inferior parietal lobule, was diminished. On the other hand, only marginal changes were observed in participants who received " sham" feedback. This " dynamic" characteristic measure of EC based on causality may be useful for evaluating the efficacy of methods designed to modulate brain networks, including rtfMRI-based neurofeedback.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)347-354
Number of pages8
JournalNeuroscience Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Apr


  • Auditory attention
  • Effective connectivity
  • Functional MRI (fMRI)
  • Granger causality
  • Neurofeedback
  • Real-time fMRI

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)


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