Real-time scheduling for xen-ARM virtual machines

Seehwan Yoo, Chuck Yoo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


This paper investigates the feasibility of real-time scheduling with mobile hypervisor, Xen-ARM. Particularly for mobile virtual machines, real-time support is in high demand. However, it is difficult to guarantee real-time scheduling with virtual machines because inter-VM and intra-VM schedulability have to be determined in multi-OS environments. To address the schedulability, first, this paper presents a definition of a real-time virtual machine. Second, this paper analyzes intra-VM schedulability, taking quantization overhead into account. Quantization overhead comes from tick-based scheduling of Xen-ARM, which requires integer presentation of scheduling period and execution slice. Third, to minimize quantization overhead, this paper provides a new algorithm, called SH-quantization that provides accurate and efficient parameterization of a real-time virtual machine. Fourth, this paper presents an inter-VM schedulability test for incorporating multiple real-time virtual machines. To evaluate the approach, we implement the SH-quantization algorithm in Xen-ARM and paravirtualize a real-time OS, called xeno- \(\mu \) C/OS-II. We ran extensive experiments with various configurations of real-time tasks on a real hardware platform in order to characterize the scheduling behavior of real-time virtual machine with quantization. The results show that quantization overhead consumes additional CPU bandwidth up to 90% and the proposed algorithm guarantees intra/inter-VM schedulability with minimal CPU bandwidth.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6583914
Pages (from-to)1857-1867
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Aug


  • Operating systems
  • Real time systems
  • Scheduling
  • Virtual machines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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