Recapitulating cardiac structure and function in vitro from simple to complex engineering

Ana Rita M.P. Santos, Yongjun Jang, Inwoo Son, Jongseong Kim, Yongdoo Park

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Cardiac tissue engineering aims to generate in vivo‐like functional tissue for the study of cardiac development, homeostasis, and regeneration. Since the heart is composed of various types of cells and extracellular matrix with a specific microenvironment, the fabrication of cardiac tissue in vitro requires integrating technologies of cardiac cells, biomaterials, fabrication, and computational modeling to model the complexity of heart tissue. Here, we review the recent progress of engineering techniques from simple to complex for fabricating matured cardiac tissue in vitro. Advancements in cardiomyocytes, extracellular matrix, geometry, and computational modeling will be discussed based on a technology perspective and their use for preparation of functional cardiac tissue. Since the heart is a very complex system at multiscale levels, an understanding of each technique and their interactions would be highly beneficial to the development of a fully functional heart in cardiac tissue engineering.

Original languageEnglish
Article number386
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Apr

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by the National Research Foundation of Korea, Republic of Korea, grant No. 2016‐M3A9B6947892, and a Korea University Grant.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Cardiac tissue engineering
  • Cardiomyocyte
  • Computational modeling
  • Extracellular matrix
  • Geometry
  • Human pluripotent stem cell
  • Maturation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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