Regional pulse wave velocities and their cardiovascular risk factors among healthy middle-aged men: A cross-sectional population-based study

Jina Choo, Chol Shin, Emma Barinas-Mitchell, Kamal Masaki, Bradley J. Willcox, Todd B. Seto, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Sunghee Lee, Katsuyuki Miura, Lakshmi Venkitachalam, Rachel H. Mackey, Rhobert W. Evans, Lewis H. Kuller, Kim Sutton-Tyrrell, Akira Sekikawa

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52 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Both carotid-femoral (cf) pulse wave velocity (PWV) and brachial-ankle (ba) PWV employ arterial sites that are not consistent with the path of blood flow. Few previous studies have reported the differential characteristics between cfPWV and baPWV by simultaneously comparing these with measures of pure central (aorta) and peripheral (leg) arterial stiffness, i.e., heart-femoral (hf) PWV and femoral-ankle (fa) PWV in healthy populations. We aimed to identify the degree to which these commonly used measures of cfPWV and baPWV correlate with hfPWV and faPWV, respectively, and to evaluate whether both cfPWV and baPWV are consistent with either hfPWV or faPWV in their associations with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors.Methods: A population-based sample of healthy 784 men aged 40-49 (202 white Americans, 68 African Americans, 202 Japanese-Americans, and 282 Koreans) was examined in this cross-sectional study. Four regional PWVs were simultaneously measured by an automated tonometry/plethysmography system.Results: cfPWV correlated strongly with hfPWV (r = .81, P < .001), but weakly with faPWV (r = .12, P = .001). baPWV correlated moderately with both hfPWV (r = .47, P < .001) and faPWV (r = .62, P < .001). After stepwise regression analyses with adjustments for race, cfPWV shared common significant correlates with both hfPWV and faPWV: systolic blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI). However, BMI was positively associated with hfPWV and cfPWV, and negatively associated with faPWV. baPWV shared common significant correlates with hfPWV: age and systolic BP. baPWV also shared the following correlates with faPWV: systolic BP, triglycerides, and current smoking.Conclusions: Among healthy men aged 40 - 49, cfPWV correlated strongly with central PWV, and baPWV correlated with both central and peripheral PWVs. Of the CV risk factors, systolic BP was uniformly associated with all the regional PWVs. In the associations with factors other than systolic BP, cfPWV was consistent with central PWV, while baPWV was consistent with both central and peripheral PWVs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5
JournalBMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jan 13

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health (grant no. R01 HL68200 and R01-HL071561), the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (grant no. 2004-347-6111–213), and Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (No. 2010–0022022).


  • Aorta
  • Arterial stiffness
  • Brachial artery
  • Carotid arteries
  • Femoral artery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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