Resilience evaluation of multi-path routing against network attacks and failures

Hyok An, Yoonjong Na, Heejo Lee, Adrian Perrig

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


The current state of security and availability of the Internet is far from being commensurate with its importance. The number and strength of DDoS attacks conducted at the network layer have been steadily increasing. However, the single path (SP) routing used in today’s Internet lacks a mitigation scheme to rapidly recover from network attacks or link failure. In case of a link failure occurs, it can take several minutes until failover. In contrast, multi-path routing can take advantage of multiple alternative paths and rapidly switch to another working path. According to the level of available path control, we classfy the multi-path routing into two types, first-hop multi-path (FMP) and multi-hop multi-path (MMP) routing. Although FMP routing supported by networks, such as SD-WAN, shows marginal improvements over the current SP routing of the Internet, MMP routing supported by a global Internet architecture provides strong improvement under network attacks and link failure. MMP routing enables changing to alternate paths to mitigate the network problem in other hops, which cannot be controlled by FMP routing. To show this comparison with practical outcome, we evaluate network performance in terms of latency and loss rate to show that MMP routing can mitigate Internet hazards and provide high availability on global networks by 18 participating ASes in six countries. Our evaluation of global networks shows that, if network attacks or failures occur in other autonomous systems (ASes) that FMP routing cannot avoid, it is feasible to deal with such problems by switching to alternative paths by using MMP routing. When the global evaluation is under a transit-link DDoS attack, the loss rates of FMP that pass the transit-link are affected significantly by a transit-link DDoS attack, but the other alternative MMP paths show stable status under the DDoS attack with proper operation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1240
JournalElectronics (Switzerland)
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jun 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • High availability
  • Internet-scale evaluation
  • Multi-path routing
  • Network security

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Signal Processing
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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