Resonant superlattice patterns in a driven ferrofluid system

Hee Kyoung Ko, Jysoo Lee, Kyoung J. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


In this review article, we discuss experimental observations of various nonequilibrium patterns generated on the surface of a ferrofluid that is parametrically driven vertically with a magnetic field. Our system is significant; in that it can be brought to a bicritical situation with a single driving frequency. In the bicritical situation, harmonic hexagonal modes competes with subharmonic square modes generating highly complex, yet regular, superlattices, as well as non-trivial simple lattice patterns. The most striking observation is the cascade of subharmonic bifurcations, resulting in spatial period doublings. Except for the subharmonic hexagonal superlattice 2H and the subharmonic rhombus 1R, the observed patterns originate from high-order (i.e., beyond three wave interactions) resonant interactions. The property of a superlattice is also shown to depend sensitively on the relevant base modes, the orientation and the number of emerged subharmonic modes, and the phase difference among the involved modes all together.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)629-637
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the Korean Physical Society
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2002 Nov


  • Ferrofluid
  • Fluid instability
  • Nonequilibrium patterns
  • Resonant interaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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