Response of transitional mixtures retaining memory of in‐ situ overburden pressure monitored using electromagnetic and piezo crystal sensors

Sang Yeob Kim, Jong Sub Lee, Junghee Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The major and minor components in granular soil materials determine their properties and behavior. This study explores the transitional behavior within threshold fines fraction of soil mixtures based on the data from the literature and experiments. From the literature survey, the void ratio, shear wave velocity, compression index, and friction angle capture the transitional turning point between the low and data‐adjusted high threshold fines fractions. In particular, there is a dra-matic change in hydraulic conductivity below the low threshold fines fraction that highlights the critical role of small amounts of fines in the fluid flow (e.g., clogging). From an experimental study, the engineering properties of natural soil samples identified using deformation and elastic wave sensors show transitional trends within the Revised Soil Classification System framework. The evolution of compressibility and shear wave velocity indicate that either coarse, fine, or both particles are likely to contribute to large and small strain stiffnesses when the effective stress is below 400 kPa. Thereafter, both engineering properties indicate that the soil sample retains a memory of in-situ overburden pressure when the effective stress is around 400 kPa. There is a critical role of fines that are slightly higher than low threshold fines fraction on engineering properties that promote the application of Revised Soil Classification System RSCS to natural soils.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2570
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Apr 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This work is supported by Smart City R&D project of the Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement (KAIA) grant funded by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (Grant 21NSPS‐B149830‐04).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Engineering properties
  • Revised soil classification system
  • Soil mixtures
  • Threshold fines fraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biochemistry
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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