Restoration plan for degraded forest in the democratic people's republic of Korea considering suitable tree species and spatial distribution

Sle Gee Lee, Hyun Ah Choi, Hyeji Yoo, Cholho Song, Sungeun Cha, Sang Won Bae, Yowhan Son, Woo Kyun Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


The ecosystem across the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) is threatened by deforestation. However, there is very little attention being given to government efforts for afforestation and rehabilitation plan. The most significant barriers to addressing this problem are technique limitations, availability of information, and lack of a stepwise forest management plan. This study identifies spatially suitable tree species, and establishes a stepwise restoration plan to support decision making for restoring degraded forest in the DPRK throughout a suitable restoration map. First off, target species were chosen from reference data, and spatial distribution maps for each tree species were prepared based on social needs as well as natural conditions in the DPRK. The suitable restoration map was calculated by two priorities in a weighting method; suitable priority, and distributional clustering level. Finally, the 23 afforestation species were selected for the suitable restoration map, including 11 coniferous and 12 deciduous tree species. We introduced a stepwise afforestation/restoration plan of degraded forest in the DPRK; general (long-term), detailed (medium-term), implementation (short-term) plans. Maps with different spatial resolutions were prepared for each of the plans. A restoration map with 12.5 km spatial resolution can be used for the general plan at the national level, and maps with 5 km and 1 km spatial resolutions can be used for detailed plan at the local level and implementation plan at the site level, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Article number856
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Mar 18

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments: This study was supported by “The Generation of Climate Change Information for RCP-based climate data for the Assessment of Impact on various measures (KMIPA2015-2130)” provided by Korea Meteorological Administration (Korea Meteorological Institute) and “R&D Program for Forest Science Technology (2017044B10-1819-BB01)” provided by Korea Forest Service (Korea Forestry Promotion Institute).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 by the authors.


  • Afforestation
  • DPRK
  • Degraded forest
  • North Korea
  • Spatial plant distribution
  • Suitable tree species

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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