Review of bone graft and bone substitutes with an emphasis on fracture surgeries

Hoon Sang Sohn, Jong Keon Oh

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    264 Citations (Scopus)


    Background: Autogenous bone graft is the gold standard bone graft material. However, due to limitations of supply and morbidity associated with autograft harvest, various bone substitutes have been considered. This article aims to review the properties of the bone graft and various bone substitutes currently available in orthopedic surgery. Main body: Synthetic bone substitutes consist of hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate, calcium sulfate, or a combination of these minerals. Synthetic porous substitutes share several advantages over allografts, including unlimited supply, easy sterilization, and storage. However, they also have some disadvantages, such as brittle properties, variable rates of resorption, and poor performance in some clinical conditions. Recently, attention has been drawn to osteoinductive materials, such as demineralized bone matrix and bone morphogenetic proteins. Conclusion: Despite tremendous efforts toward developing autograft alternatives, a single ideal bone graft substitute has not been developed. The surgeon should understand the properties of each bone graft substitute to facilitate appropriate selection in each specific clinical situation.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number9
    JournalBiomaterials Research
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 2019 Mar 14

    Bibliographical note

    Publisher Copyright:
    © 2019 The Author(s).


    • Bone graft
    • Bone morphogenetic protein
    • Bone substitutes

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Ceramics and Composites
    • Medicine (miscellaneous)
    • Biomaterials
    • Biomedical Engineering


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