Review of indium-free, transparent and flexible metallic fibers for wearable electronics

Bhavana Joshi, Edmund Samuel, Seongpil An, Siwung Kim, Alexander Yarin, Sam S. Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


The use of transparent metallic fibers (TMFs) in various applications, including touchscreens, solar cells, and transparent heaters, is gradually increasing, thereby emerging as a state-of-the-art technology in advanced portable and self-powered wearable electronics. This review discusses several novel approaches for fabricating TMFs that exhibit excellent transparency, flexibility, and low sheet resistance. TMFs are aim to meet the increasing demand for soft and wearable electronic and optoelectronic devices. Lightweight and flexible TMFs are alternatives to indium tin oxide, which is expensive, brittle, and possesses low optical transmittance in near-infrared spectra. Moreover, TMF fabrication is scalable. This review focuses on crucial techniques employed in the fabrication of metallic fibers and presents key parameters in a tabular format. In addition, the insights of developing high-performance TMFs for various applications are provided. Finally, challenges associated with the fabrication and integration of TMFs in practical applications are discussed and addressed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number146189
JournalChemical Engineering Journal
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Nov 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier B.V.


  • Electroless plating
  • Electroplating
  • Electrospinning
  • Sputtering
  • Transparent conductive electrode
  • Transparent metallic fibers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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