The versatile electrospinning technique is scalable and suitable to fabricate highly conducting freestanding carbon nanofiber composite electrodes for energy storage devices. Freestanding/flexible electrodes hold enormous potential for use in wearable electronic devices. Carbon-yielding polymers and the optimal use of sacrificial polymers, metal oxides, and sulfides retain the flexibility and enhance the surface area and pseudocapacitance of electrodes. Both as-prepared electrospun fibers and carbonized nanofibers are compatible with surface decoration via various chemical and electrochemical routes. Metal oxides/sulfides with various morphologies, such as nanocones and nanosheets, can be grown on the carbon nanofibers or on the as-prepared electrospun fibers using chemical synthesis methods such as electrodeposition, hydrothermal processes, and chemical impregnation to enhance the pseudocapacitance of the electrodes. Similarly, the deposition of metal organic frameworks on as-prepared electrospun fibers embellishes these fibers with nanostructures of specific morphologies such as dodecahedral and spindle-shaped structures. Under optimal conditions, these morphologies do not hamper the flexibility of the fibers, and binders are not required to retain them or maintain the electrode integrity. The engineering of electrodes with various morphologies and process parameters is presented systematically. Electrospinning-derived electrodes that have demonstrated significant electrochemical performance are highlighted and critically analyzed, and the energy storage mechanisms of these supercapacitors are described in detail.
- Carbon nanofibers
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry
- Materials Chemistry