Review on difference in differences

Myoung Jae Lee, Yasuyuki Sawada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Difference in differences (DD) is one of the most popular approaches in economics and other disciplines of social sciences. This paper provides a review on the basics and recent advances in DD from a personal perspective. Details on DD identification and estimation using panel data and repeated cross-sections are provided for various DD cases such as constant/time-varying effect or constant/time-varying treatment timing. Following these basics on DD, topics such as ‘DD in reverse’, fuzzy DD, synthetic control, and triple and generalized differences are examined. Many empirical examples in various areas of economics are provided for illustration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)135-173
Number of pages39
JournalKorean Economic Review
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, Korean Economic Association. All rights reserved.


  • DD in Reverse
  • Difference in Differences (DD)
  • Fuzzy DD
  • Generalized DD
  • Synthetic Control
  • Triple DD

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Economics, Econometrics and Finance(all)


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