Robust image watermarking using local Zernike moments

Nitin Singhal, Young Yoon Lee, Chang-Su Kim, Sang Uk Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Citations (Scopus)


In this work, we propose a robust image watermarking algorithm using local Zernike moments, which are computed over circular patches around feature points. The proposed algorithm locally computes Zernike moments and modifies them to embed watermarks, achieving robustness against cropping and local geometric attacks. Moreover, to deal with scaling attacks, the proposed algorithm extracts salient region parameters, which consist of an invariant centroid and a salient scale, and transmits them to the decoder. The parameters are used at the decoder to normalize a suspect image and detect watermarks. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed algorithm detects watermarks with low error rates, even if watermarked images are distorted by various geometric attacks as well as signal processing attacks.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)408-419
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Visual Communication and Image Representation
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Aug


  • Content-based synchronization
  • Digital image watermarking
  • Digital right management
  • Feature point detection
  • Geometric distortions
  • Image normalization
  • Local Zernike moments
  • Salient region parameters

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Signal Processing
  • Media Technology
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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