Oxidative stress may contribute to epileptogenicity in genetic models of epilepsy. To address this, we examined the enzymatic activity of cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD-1), mitochondrial Mn superoxide dismutase (SOD-2), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the developing hippocampus of genetically epilepsy-prone rats (GEPR-9s). We also measured changes in the GSH/GSSG ratio, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation at post-natal days (PD) 7, 30, and 90, respectively. Compared with control Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, GEPR-9s showed similar SOD-1 and SOD-2 activity but lower GPx activity. Epilepsy-prone rats also showed lower GSH/GSSG ratios than controls, and more lipid peroxidation (as measured by malondialdehyde levels) and protein oxidation (as measured by carbonyl levels). Treatment with kainic acid (KA) resulted in more pronounced seizures, less GPx activity, and lower GSH/GSSG ratios in GEPR-9s than in controls, but KA did not significantly affect SOD-1 or SOD-2 activity, suggesting that GEPR-9s do not compensate for reduced GPx activity by increasing SOD. Moreover, KA treatment resulted in significantly a lower GSH/GSSG ratio and GPx-like immunoreactivity and higher malondialdehyde and carbonyl levels in GEPR-9s than in controls. These findings were more evident in GEPR-9s at PD 90 than at PD 30, indicating that oxidative stress is age-dependent. Double-labeling immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated co-localization of GPx-immunoreactive glia-like cells and reactive astrocytes, as labeled by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). This suggests that mobilization of astroglial cells for synthesis of GPx protein is a response to KA insult, intended to decrease the neurotoxicity induced by peroxides. These responses were more pronounced in control SD rats than in GEPR-9s. Our results suggest that impairment of the GPx (including glutathione)-mediated antioxidant system contributed to epileptogenesis in GEPR-9s.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We would like to express special thanks to Professor Dr. O.P. Ottersen for his helpful discussions. This study was supported by a grant of the Korea Health 21 R & D project (A020007), Ministry of Health & Welfare, and by a grant (M103KV010014-07K2201-01410) from the Brain Research Center from the 21st Century Frontier Research Program funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea. H.J. Kim is involved in BK 21 program, Korea Research Foundation.
- Genetically epilepsy-prone rats
- Glutathione peroxidase
- Kainic acid
- Oxidative stress
- Post-natal day
- Superoxide dismutase
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Cell Biology