Room-temperature-processed amorphous Sn-In-O electron transport layer for perovskite solar cells

Seungtae Baek, Jeong Woo Han, Devthade Vidyasagar, Hanbyeol Cho, Hwi Heon Ha, Dong Hoe Kim, Young Woo Heo, Sangwook Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


We report amorphous tin-indium-oxide (TIO, Sn fraction: >50 atomic percentage (at%)) thin films as a new electron transport layer (ETL) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). TIO thin films with Sn fraction of 52, 77, 83, 92, and 100 at% were grown on crystalline indium-tin-oxide (ITO, Sn fraction: ∼10 at%) thin films, a common transparent conducting oxide, by co-sputtering In2O3 and SnO2 at room temperature. The energy band structures of the amorphous TIO thin films were determined from the optical absorbance and the ultraviolet photoelectron spectra. All the examined compositions are characterized by a conduction band edge lying between that of ITO and that of perovskite (here, methylammonium lead triiodide), indicating that TIO is a potentially viable ETL of PSCs. The photovoltaic characteristics of the TIO-based PSCs were evaluated. Owing mainly to the highest fill factor and open circuit voltage, the optimal power conversion effciency was obtained for the 77 at%-Sn TIO ETL with TiCl4 treatment. The fill factor and the open circuit voltage changes with varying the Sn fraction, despite similar conduction band edges. We attribute these differences to the considerable changes in the electrical resistivity of the TIO ETL. This would have a significant effect on the shunt and/or the series resistances. The TIO ETL can be continuously grown on an ITO TCO in a chamber, as ITO and TIO are composed of identical elements, which would help to reduce production time and costs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)32
Number of pages1
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jan 1
Externally publishedYes


  • Band structure
  • Electrical property
  • Electron transport layer
  • Perovskite solar cell
  • Room temperature
  • Tin-indium-oxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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