Generally, the decision rule for classifying unstructured data in an artificial neural network system depends on the sequence results of an activation function determined by vector–matrix multiplication between the input bias signal and the analog synaptic weight quantity of each node in a matrix array. Although a sequence-based decision rule can efficiently extract a common feature in a large data set in a short time, it can occasionally fail to classify similar species because it does not intrinsically consider other quantitative configurations of the activation function that affect the synaptic weight update. In this work, we implemented a simple run-off election-based decision rule via an additional filter evaluation to mitigate the confusion from proximity of output activation functions, enabling the improved training and inference performance of artificial neural network system. Using the filter evaluation selected via the difference among common features of classified images, the recognition accuracy achieved for three types of shoe image data sets reached ~ 82.03%, outperforming the maximum accuracy of ~ 79.23% obtained via the sequence-based decision rule in a fully connected single layer network. This training algorithm with an independent filter can precisely supply the output class in the decision step of the fully connected network.
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